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فارسی و انگلیسی…

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عنوان: شناسایی قابلیت‌های رسانه‌های اجتماعی در جمع‌سپاری مدیریت مخاطرۀ زلزله

نویسندگان: سیاوش صلواتیان و علی سوری

دانلود (701.4 کیلوبایت)

سلام
مقاله ای با عنوان
توسعه سیستم اطلاعات مکانی شهروند-محور به منظور پایش و تحلیل جرائم شهری

چکیده:
وقوع جرائم یکی از معضلات روزافزون در جوامع امروزی، به خصوص در کلانشهرها است. پیشگیری و کنترل جرائم در این شهرها نیازمند بهره گیری درست و بهینه از توان ها و استعداد های شهروندان در قالب برنامه های مشارکتی می باشد. امروزه با توسعه وب 2.0 به عنوان یک رویکرد نو با امکان تعامل و مشارکت بیشتر، اتصال به شبکه های گسترده تر و کانال های ارتباطی متعدد، زمینه ی مشارکت شهروندان در امر پایش، تحلیل و تصمیم گیری در حوزه جرائم شهری فراهم شده است. بهره گیری از سیستم های اطلاعات مکانی (GIS) شهروند-محور در بستر وب می تواند سبب سهولت دسترسی به اطلاعات مکانی به هنگام جرائم شده و همچنین زمینه ساز حضور هر چه بیشتر شهروندان در حوزه ی پیشگیری و کنترل جرائم شود. با استفاده از سیستم مذکور، مردم جامعه به پایشگران فعال جرائم تبدیل می شوند و می توانند به عنوان حسگرهای فعال، تحلیل گر، هوشمند، مسئولیت پذیر، محیط-آگاه، سیار، توزیع یافته و تعامل پذیر جرائم پیرامون خود را رصد نموده و گزارش نمایند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف توسعه یک سیستم پایش شهروند-محور جرائم مبتنی بر وب GIS صورت گرفته است. ابزارهای پیاده سازی شده در این سیستم شامل ارسال اطلاعات دقیق مکانی، نوع، تاریخ و ساعت وقوع جرائم توسط شهروندان، مشاهده جرائم گزارش شده و تجزیه و تحلیل این اطلاعات می باشد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد این سیستم می تواند ابزار مناسبی برای پایش جرائم باشد و سبب سهولت مشارکت شهروندان به منظور جمع آوری، تحلیل و تصمیم گیری در جهت پیشگیری و کنترل جرائم گردد.

لینک:
https://jhgr.ut.ac.ir/article_64352_0.html

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خرد جمع درست حدس می‌زند؛ مقاله‌ای جدید که به این موضوع پرداخته است:

Counteracting estimation bias and social influence to improve the wisdom of crowds

Aggregating multiple non-expert opinions into a collective estimate can improve accuracy across many contexts. However, two sources of error can diminish collective wisdom: individual estimation biases and information sharing between individuals. Here, we measure individual biases and social influence rules in multiple experiments involving hundreds of individuals performing a classic numerosity estimation task. We first investigate how existing aggregation methods, such as calculating the arithmetic mean or the median, are influenced by these sources of error. We show that the mean tends to overestimate, and the median underestimate, the true value for a wide range of numerosities. Quantifying estimation bias, and mapping individual bias to collective bias, allows us to develop and validate three new aggregation measures that effectively counter sources of collective estimation error. In addition, we present results from a further experiment that quantifies the social influence rules that individuals employ when incorporating personal estimates with social information. We show that the corrected mean is remarkably robust to social influence, retaining high accuracy in the presence or absence of social influence, across numerosities and across different methods for averaging social information.Using knowledge of estimation biases and social influence rules may therefore be an inexpensive and general strategy to improve the wisdom of crowds.

wisdom of crowd.pdf (845.3 کیلوبایت)

مهندسی انگیزه در جمع‌سپاری (از مشکلات و چالش‌های اصلی جمع‌سپاری)

A survey of incentive engineering for crowdsourcing

> With the growth of the Internet, crowdsourcing has become a popular way to perform intelligence tasks that hitherto would be either performed internally within an organization or not undertaken due to prohibitive costs and the lack of an appropriate communications infrastructure. In crowdsourcing systems, whereby multiple agents are not under the direct control of a system designer, it cannot be assumed that agents will act in a manner that is consistent with the objectives of the system designer or principal agent. In situations whereby agents’ goals are to maximize their return in crowdsourcing systems that offer financial or other rewards, strategies will be adopted by agents to game the system if appropriate mitigating measures are not put in place. The motivational and incentivization research space is quite large; it incorporates diverse techniques from a variety of different disciplines including behavioural economics, incentive theory, and game theory. This paper specifically focusses on game theoretic approaches to the problem in the crowdsourcing domain and places it in the context of the wider research landscape. It provides a survey of incentive engineering techniques that enable the creation of apt incentive structures in a range of different scenarios.

A survey of Engineering for crowdsourcing.pdf (245.0 کیلوبایت)

مقاله قابل توجه موسسه‌ی مکنزی پیرامون جمع‌سپاری

How to avoid the pitfalls of IT crowdsourcing to boost speed, find talent, and reduce costs

Crowdsourcing is emerging as an important capability for companies modernizing IT. Businesses that do it best follow five important principles.

  1. Poor understanding of what tasks and platforms are best suited for crowdsourcing. Companies are often tempted to crowdsource a wide range of tasks without understanding which activities are suitable and which are not. That lack of clarity often extends to platform selection. Different crowdsourcing platforms are optimized for different activities.
  2. A management apparatus that can’t address the specific demands of crowdsourcing. Enterprises have developed management roles and practices to manage traditional IT projects, but those capabilities cannot address the specific circumstances of crowdsourced projects. New capabilities are needed to focus on process, integration, and management to support crowdsourcing.
  3. Underestimating the complexity of working with established architecture. Standard IT structures tend to be monolithic and made up of a mix of large and often-outdated systems. That lack of flexibility can radically increase the complexity of crowdsourcing as IT managers try to address an often-baffling set of system dependencies and configurations for any given project.
  4. Insufficient attention to client confidentiality. The remote nature of crowdsourced delivery means that enterprises need to enforce high levels of client confidentiality. But the complexities of sharing, allowing access to files, and validating solutions require a clear approach to confidentiality protections before a project even begins.
  5. Misaligned pricing incentives. Too often, enterprises default to traditional pricing practices that lead to poor outcomes, do not attract the best talent, and have a low ROI.

سایت مکنزی

:memo: جمع سپاری و لزوم کاربست آن در سیاست گذاری عمومی

:lower_left_ballpoint_pen: محمد خاجی

جمع سپاری فرآیند به کارگیری جمع انبوهی از افراد به منظور جلب مشارکت و استفاده از مهارت ها و خلاقیت های آنها در حل مسائل و رشد سازمان هاست. چنان‌چه فرد یا سازمانی قصد تولید محصول جدید، حل مسائل و مشکلات کلیدی، یافتن سرمایه گذار یا ایجاد کمپین های تبلیغاتی برای پروژه ی خود را داشته باشد، جمع سپاری می تواند گزینه ی مناسبی برای آن باشد. تمرکز جمع سپاری بر مشارکت دادن انبوه جمعیت در فعالیت هایی نظیر حل مسئله، پیشنهاد راهکار، تولید و توسعه، مشارکت در ایده سازی، نوآوری، طراحی و به سازی فرآیندهای ارائه ی خدمات است که بر کیفیت محصول، وفاداری و خشنودی مشتری یا مشتریان تاثیر مستقیم دارد.

:white_check_mark:
گونه های جمع‌سپاری
الگوهای جمع‌سپاری را می‌توان به دو دسته ی مادی و معنوی مطبق نمود. هر یک از این دو دسته می‌تواند در قالب یکی از گونه های زیر به اجرا درآید:
:one:
حمایت آزاد و داوطلبانه
:two:
حمایت با انگیزه ی پرداخت سود
:three:
حمایت با انگیزه ی تملک
:four:
حمایت ‌شونده و حمایت کننده همزمان

:white_check_mark:
کارکردهای جمع سپاری در سیاست گذاری عمومی
جمع سپاری می تواند به انحاء مختلف به مراکز سیاست گذاری، تصمیم گیری و تصمیم سازی به طور عام و به سیاست گذاران، تصمیم گیران و تصمیم سازان به طور خاص یاری رساند. در ادامه به شش مورد از کارکردهای موثر جمع سپاری در سیاست گذاری عمومی اشاره می‌شود
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
به کارگیری نخبگان
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
تسهیل تصمیم سازی
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
تقویت سرمایه ی اجتماعی
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
تشدید عزت نفس عمومی
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
بهبود پیوند میان مردم و سیاست گذاران
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
امکان ارزیابی اثرات احتمالی

:white_check_mark:
مزایای جمع‌سپاری در تصمیم‌سازی و حل مسأله
جمع سپاری واجد امتیازاتی است که تبیین‌گر مزایای آن نسبت به روش های کنونی تصمیم سازی و حل مسأله در کشور است. اهم این مزایا عبارتند از:
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
خلاقیت محوری
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
کاهش هزینه های پژوهش
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
افزایش مشارکت عمومی
:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside:
صرفه جویی در زمان
:id:
@hekmat_ac
:globe_with_meridians:

منبع

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جمع‌سپاری؛ ابزاری نوین برای سیاست‌گذاری؟

Crowdsourcing: a new tool for policy-making

Crowdsourcing is rapidly evolving and applied in situations where ideas, labour, opinion or expertise of large groups of people is used. Crowdsourcing is now used in various policy-making initiatives; however, this use has usually focused on open collaboration platforms and specific stages of the policy process, such as agenda-setting and policy evaluations. Other forms of crowdsourcing have been neglected in policy-making, with a few exceptions. This article examines crowdsourcing as a tool for policy-making and explores the nuances of the technology and its use and implications for different stages of the policy process. The article addresses questions surrounding the role of crowdsourcing and whether it can be considered as a policy tool or as a technological enabler and investigates the current trends and future directions of crowdsourcing.

دریافت مقاله :point_down::point_down:
:101007s11077-017-9303-3.pdf (541.1 کیلوبایت)

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کتاب پیشرفت‌هایی در جمع‌سپاری:

Advances in Crowdsourcing

​Examines recent advances in crowdsourcing as it relates to innovation, development and management

​​This book attempts to link some of the recent advances in crowdsourcing with advances in innovation and management. It contributes to the literature in several ways. First, it provides a global definition, insights and examples of this managerial perspective resulting in a theoretical framework. Second, it explores the relationship between crowdsourcing and technological innovation, the development of social networks and new behaviors of Internet users. Third, it explores different crowdsourcing applications in various sectors such as medicine, tourism, information and communication technology (ICT), and marketing. Fourth, it observes the ways in which crowdsourcing can improve production, finance, management and overall managerial performance.

Crowdsourcing, also known as “massive outsourcing” or “voluntary outsourcing,” is the act of taking a job or a specific task usually performed by an employee of a company or contractors, and outsourcing it to a large group of people or a community (crowd or mass) via the Internet, through an open call. The term was coined by Jeff Howe in a 2006 issue of Wired magazine. It is being developed in different sciences (i.e., medicine, engineering, ICT, management) and is used in the most successful companies of the modern era (i.e., Apple, Facebook, Inditex, Starbucks). The developments in crowdsourcing has theoretical and practical implications, which will be explored in this book.

Including contributions from international academics, scholars and professionals within the field, this book provides a global, multidimensional perspective on crowdsourcing.​

برای دانلود کتاب می‌توانید به سایت Sci-Hub مراجعه کنید

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Examining Community Dynamics of Civic Crowdfunding Participation

Mayer2018-ExaminingCommunityDynamicsofCCFFinal.pdf (477.8 کیلوبایت)

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CROWDSOURCING IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

Daren C. Brabham

cover art

Crowdsourcing is a term that was coined in 2006 to describe how the commercial sector was beginning to outsource problems or tasks to the public through an open call for solutions over the internet or social media. Crowdsourcing works to generate new ideas or develop innovative solutions to problems by drawing on the wisdom of the many rather than the few. US local government experimented with rudimentary crowdsourcing strategies as early as 1989, but in the last few years local, state, and federal government have increasingly turned to crowdsourcing to enhance citizen participation in problem solving, setting priorities, and decision making. While crowdsourcing in the public sector holds much promise and is part of a larger movement toward more citizen participation in democratic government, many challenges, especially legal and ethical issues, need to be addressed to successfully adapt it for use in the public sector.

Table of Contents

  1. Crowdsourcing’s Conceptual Foundations
  2. Deciding If and When to Use Crowdsourcing
    Knowledge Discovery and Management (KDM)
    Distributed Human Intelligence Tasking (DHIT)
    Broadcast Search
    Peer-Vetted Creative Production (PVCP)
  3. The Planning Phase
    Best Practice 1: Clearly defi ne the problem and
    solution parameters
    Best Practice 2: Determine the level of commitment
    to the outcomes received
    Best Practice 3: Know the online community and
    its motivations
  4. The Implementation Phase
    Best Practice 4: Invest in usable, interesting,
    well-designed tools
    Best Practice 5: Craft policies in line with the legal needs
    of the organization and the online community
    Best Practice 6: Launch promotional and growth plans
    to sustain the community
    Best Practice 7. Be honest, transparent, and responsive
    Best Practice 8: Be involved but let go of control
  5. The Post-Implementation Phase
    Best Practice 9: Acknowledge users and follow through
    on obligations
    Best Practice 10: Assess the project from many angles

Conclusion: The Future of Crowdsourcing in the Public Sector5

سایت انتشارات
crowdsourcing in Public Sector.pdf (994.6 کیلوبایت)

با جستجوی واژه‌ی Crowdourcing در سایت ketab.io کتاب‌های خوب این حوزه را پوشش داده است:

دریافت کتب

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http://www.businessofgovernment.org/report/using-crowdsourcing-government

The growing interest in “engaging the crowd” to identify or develop innovative solutions to public problems has been inspired by similar efforts in the commercial world. There, crowdsourcing has been successfully used to design innovative consumer products or solve complex scientific problems, ranging from custom-designed T-shirts to mapping genetic DNA strands.

using_crowdsourcing_in_government.pdf (3.3 مگابایت)

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Innovation Contests: How to Engage Citizens in Solving Urban Problems?

Abstract

Cities all over the world are challenged with problems evolving from increasing urbanity, population growth, and density. For example, one prominent issue that is addressed in many cities is mobility. To develop smart city solutions, governments are trying to introduce open innovation. They have started to open their governmental and city related data as well as awake the citizens’ awareness on urban problems through innovation contests. Citizens are the users of the city and therefore, have a practical motivation to engage in innovation contests as for example in hackathons and app competitions. The collaboration and co-creation of civic services by means of innovation contests is a cultural development of how governments and citizens work together in an open governmental environment. A qualitative analysis of innovation contests in 24 world cities reveals this global trend. In particular, such events increase the awareness of citizens and local businesses for identifying and solving urban challenges and are helpful means to transfer the smart city idea into practicable solutions.

https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/innovation-contests/220201

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مطلب دانشگاه وارتون در رابطه با جمع‌سپاری؛ آیا خردی در جماعت است؟

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/really-wisdom-crowd/

جمع‌سپاری خط‌‌مشی و جلب مشارکت عامّه در فرایند خط‌مشی‌‌گذاری عمومی: درس‌آموزه‌هایی برای ایران

ذوالفقارزاده و شهسواری:

یکی از مقدمات رسیدن به الگوی مناسب مشارکت مردمی در اداره کشور، مرور الگوها و روش‌های موجود سایر کشورها و استفاده از پشتوانۀ علمی آن‌ها، درس‌آموزی از تجربۀ عملی آن‌ها و تلاش برای بکارگیری یافته‌ها با توجه به شرایط و اقتضائات خاص کشور است. هدف از این پژوهش مرور مختصر سه مرحله مذکور در رابطه با یکی از روش‌های نوین مشارکت، به نام «جمع‌سپاری خط‌مشی»، با استفاده از روش تحقیق اسنادی است. لذا در این نوشتار ضمن معرفی اجمالی روش‌های مشارکت عمومی، به تبیین روش‌ جمع‌سپاری می‌پردازیم و راه‌‌های اجرایی، مزایا، الزامات و چالش‌های پیش روی تحقق آن را بیان می‌کنیم و در این راستا به نمونه‌هایی از تجربیات خارجی جمع‌سپاری خط‌مشی اشاره می‌نماییم. در نهایت، به ذکر توصیه‌هایی سیاستی درخصوص انتقال این روش به نظام اداری و خط‌مشی‌گذاری ایران پرداخته و نمونه‌های آغازین جمع‌سپاری در ایران را معرفی می‌نماییم.

منبع

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