منابع علمی و دستورالعمل‌های مدیریت تعارض منافع

مدیریت تعارض منافع در بخش عمومی: ویتنام

AUS11340-WP-p153692-PUBLIC-ConflictofinterestEN.pdf (6.8 مگابایت)

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A post was merged into an existing topic: معرفی منابع علمی در زمینه تعارض منافع

Codes of Conduct and Conflict of Interest at any Governance Level of the Management of EU Funds

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2 posts were merged into an existing topic: معرفی منابع علمی در زمینه تعارض منافع

wb-financial disclosure guide.pdf (4.1 مگابایت)

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بخش نامه تعارض منافع مربوط به همکاران معاونت حقوقی ریاست جمهوری

ابلاغ شد.

به منظور صیانت از حقوق عمومی، رعایت منفعت عمومی و با هدف ارتقای اعتماد عمومی به نظام حقوقی و اداری کشور و افزایش کارآمدی سازمانی، بخشنامه صیانت از حقوق و منفعت عمومی و جلوگیری از بروز موقعیت تعارض منافع و ایجاد و ارتقای اعتماد عمومی به نظام حقوقی و اداری کشور با شماره 57071 در تاریخ 97/5/3 از سوی معاون حقوقی رییس‌جمهور خطاب به مديران و كاركنان آن معاونت ابلاغ گردید.
متن این بخشنامه (نسخه ابلاغی) را از طریق لینک زیر مشاهده نمایید.

دریافت متن کامل (فایل pdf)

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Guidelines for Avoiding Conflict of Interest in RTDNA
( Radio Television Digital News Association )

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Policy 2.2.3: Conflicts of Interest

This policy applies to all CBC/Radio-Canada employees. Individuals or companies who have a contract with CBC/Radio-Canada, including freelancers, independent producers, as well as service providers and consultants working on site or on a CBC/Radio-Canada project, are expected to abide by the provisions of this policy that are reasonably applicable to them.

http://www.cbc.radio-canada.ca/en/reporting-to-canadians/acts-and-policies/management/human-resources/2-2-3/

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Aim for the Heart
Write, Shoot, Report and Produce for TV and Multimedia
THIRD EDITION,2017

CHAPTER 16. ETHICS AND BROADCAST JOURNALISTS: ACT INDEPENDENTLY
Avoid Conflicts of Interest


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دریافت متن_Chapter_16.pdf (640.9 کیلوبایت)

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International Chamber of Commerce publishes conflict of interest guidelines

The International Chamber of Commerce – apparently the world’s largest business organization – recently published Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest in Enterprises. It is available for free download [here].

Among other things, the Guidelines provide a useful summary of what should generally be included in a COI compliance policy:

Objective: first, the prevention of Conflicts of Interest, and if nevertheless they do arise, dealing with them, disclosing them and finally mitigating the risks of them arising;

Scope: applicable and binding for all directors, officers, managers, employees, agents and representatives (Associates) of the Enterprise;

Definitions: include clear definitions;

Provisions:

– comply with all applicable laws and regulations in addition to internal regulations of the Enterprise, including privacy laws and policies;

– all decisions and actions by all Associates shall be taken in the best interest of the Enterprise;

– Associates shall not take business opportunities that belong to the Enterprise for themselves;

– Associates shall immediately disclose any Conflicts of Interest;

– Associates shall abstain or withdraw from debating, voting, or other decision-making processes or activities when a Conflict of Interest exists or might arise;

– Senior Management shall lead by example and give guidance on Conflicts of Interest;

– job applicants and newly hired or appointed Associates shall disclose any Conflicts of Interest immediately during the hiring or appointment process;

– every member of Senior Management shall update his/her disclosure on Conflicts of Interest at least annually to the Compliance Officer, or any other person in charge of the Conflict of Interest Policy;

– provision on communication and training on Conflicts of Interest;

– provision explaining where guidance may be obtained in case of questions or concerns; and

– provision on regular reporting of Conflicts of Interest and evaluation of the Policy.

Overall, I agree with these recommendations, but to me the principal value of the Guidelines lies more in the very fact that it exists than the particulars of its various provisions.

That is, perhaps because COIs are so widespread and diffuse (meaning not the subject of a unified legal regime), they often seem to discourage meaningful efforts to mitigate them in the type of programmatic way that one typically sees with anti-bribery and competition law. The Guidelines – issued by an organization with six million members – is an important step in the direction of making such approach a mainstream expectation.

(For more information on the components of a COI compliance program see the various entries and subentries under “Compliance” on the index on the left hand part of this blog – also available here.)

Conflict of Interest Blog

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CONFLICTS OF INTEREST TOPIC GUIDE

دریافت pdf



CONFLICT OF INTEREST GUIDANCE FOR ORGANISATIONS

If not managed appropriately, conflict of interest can undermine confidence in the public sector and damage the reputations of organisations and individuals.

There is nothing unusual or necessarily wrong in having a conflict of interest. It is crucial, however, that conflict of interest is managed to protect the public interest. This page provides organisations with guidance and tools to manage conflict of interest risks, including a model policy and declaration form templates.

Model conflict of interest policy and declaration form templates

The Victorian Secretaries Board endorsed a model conflict of interest policy and supporting materials to assist the public sector to manage conflict of interest risks.

Adopting and implementing the model policy and declaration form templates is consistent with requirements under the codes of conduct for Victorian public sector employees and employees of special bodies. The codes of conduct require public sector body heads to develop and implement policies and procedures tailored to their own operating environment to support the application of the code, including the effective management of conflict of interest.

Consensual personal relationships

The model policy includes high level processes for the management of consensual personal relationships in the workplace, and is accompanied by a practice guide to support its implementation.

Implementing the model conflict of interest policy

The model policy sets expected standards for managing conflict of interest within public sector organisations. Public sector body heads should build upon the model policy to reflect risks associated with their organisations’ functions and activities, and implement the policy within their organisation.

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یک نمونه خوب از خط مشی دانشگاه تورنتو در مورد تعارض منافع ناشی از روابط

This memorandum outlines the obligations placed on faculty members under the University of Toronto Policy on Conflict of Interest . In particular, it discusses the implications of University policy for sexual and otherwise intimate relations between faculty members and their students or colleagues.

A conflict of interest arises when your personal interests conflict with your responsibilities to the University. In particular, if you are charged with making or participating in decisions as part of your professional undertakings, and you have any personal interest in the outcome of those decisions, you will be in a conflict of interest. For example, if either you or someone with whom you have a close personal relation stands to gain — financially or academically — as a result of a decision to which you are contributing, you have a conflict of interest.

Close Personal Relations With Colleagues

Where you have, or have recently had, a close personal relation with a colleague who is your peer — where, for example, you and a faculty colleague are in a conjugal relation — you will be in a conflict of interest in any circumstance where you are involved in making a decision that affects the academic prowess of your colleague. Examples of this include decisions about PTR or tenure. A conflict of interest will not arise simply because both of you are on a committee, or where you are each contributing to discussions about third parties.

Where you have a close personal relation with a junior colleague, or with a member of the administrative staff, you will be in a conflict of interest whenever you are involved in decisions that affect the professional welfare of your colleague.

Close Personal Relations With Students

If you have, or have had, a familial, sexual, or otherwise close relationship with a student, you will be in conflict of interest if you exercise any influence — direct or indirect — in decisions that may affect the student. In other words, you will almost inevitably be in a conflict of interest.

Sexual Harassment

You should also be aware that if you become romantically or sexually involved with a student or a subordinate, you leave yourself open to allegations of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is defined in law and in University policy as sexual attention which is “unwelcome”; recent court rulings have established that a sexual relationship between consenting adults may constitute sexual harassment where one of the individuals involved exercised authority over the other, and where that person’s conduct — although consented to — was “unwelcome” to the other.

Disclosing Conflicts of Interest

If you are in a conflict of interest, you must disclose this to the Chair of your department immediately. You are not required to provide any details of the personal relation that gives rise to the conflict of interest; you need not answer questions about it, and you are entitled to confidentiality. It is the responsibility of your Chair to take appropriate steps to “separate the interests”: to relieve you of your professional duties in respect of a person in relation to whom you have a conflict of interest, for example, or to ensure third-party oversight of any decisions you make. These steps are taken in order to safeguard the interests of your student or colleague, but also to protect you from unfair imputations about your professional judgment.

Supervising Teaching Assistants & Research Assistants

If you supervise TAs or RAs, you are responsible for ensuring that they know about and comply with the requirements of the Policy on Conflict of Interest . TAs, in particular, are often unmindful of their professional role in relation to the undergraduates they teach, and are unaware of relevant employment policies. You should discuss the issue of conflict of interest with them before the start of the academic term; you should emphasize that disclosures will be confidential, and explain clearly that you will not seek information from them or from their students about personal matters. You can also assure them there is no automatic opprobrium attached to conflicts of interest. Where you do learn that a TA or an RA whom you supervise is in a conflict of interest vis à vis a student, you should transfer the responsibility for academic decisions about that student to another TA, or assume it yourself.

https://www.provost.utoronto.ca/planning-policy/conflict-of-interest-close-personal-relations/

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Societies need to guard against not just the actuality of conflict of interest intruding
into official decision-making but also the perception that it may be doing so. For
example, a political leader or official may be entirely “altruistic” in the way he behaves,
but if he happens to have a financial interest in an issue with which he is dealing, outside
parties may think he is acting in his self-interest. So there need to be mechanisms in
place to avoid any such perception – e.g. making a declaration of personal assets on
taking office, establishing “blind trusts” that are managed by an independent trustee, and
“declaring an interest” and asking another minister or official to provide the advice or
take the decision when there is a clear conflict of interest.

دولت وظیفه دارد علاوه بر مدیریت تعارض منافع فعال، تعارض منافع ادراک شده را نیز مدیریت کند.

منبع:
Conflict of Interest: A Historical and Comparative Perspective

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معیارهای ارزشیابی سیاست‌های (مدیریت) تعارض منافع

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منبع:
Institute of Medicine. (2009). Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice (B. Lo & M. J. Field, eds.).

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توکیل (تراست) کور

در تراست ، مالک با صرفنظر نمودن از حق مالکیت خویش، آنرا موضوع تراست قرار داده و حق مالکیت قانونی خود را به شخصی که تراستی نامیده می شود منتقل می نماید. وظیفه او نگهداری اموال و سرمایه گذاری آنها برای تأمین منافع اشخاص ذینفع یا تحقق اهداف مورد نظر مالک است. اختیارات تراستی، در صورتی که در سند تراست مشخص نشده باشد، توسط قانون تعیین می گردد. وجود قصد، وجود و تعیین ذینفع و وجود و تعیین اموال موضوع آن، شرط و رکن ایجاد این نهاد است. غیر از تراست عام یا خیریه، سایر انواع تراست، موقتی هستند و با پایان مدت از بین می روند. همچنین امکان انحلال ارادی آنها نیز وجود دارد. در مواردی نیز به صورت قهری از بین می روند. در نظام حقوقی ایران، وقف شباهتهای زیادی با نهاد تراست دارد. موضوع هر دو صرفاً مال و هدف هر دو صرفاً انتفاع اشخاص یا اهداف معین و مورد نظرِ بانیان آنها است. هر دو نهاد رکن مدیریتی دارند. درهر دو فک ملک از مالک صورت می پذیرد. بقای هر دو در گرو بقای اموال موضوع آنها است و با تلف شدن آنها از بین می روند. این دو نهاد تفاوتهای اساسی نیز دارند. وقف الزاماً دائم است اما تراست اصولاً موقت است. وقف قابلیت انحلال ارادی ندارد، اما تراست اینگونه نیست. موضوع وقف فقط باید عین باشد، اما کلیه اموال را می توان به تراست اختصاص داد. در وقف اراده موقوفٌ علیهم یکی از ارکان عقد است، اما اراده اشخاص ذینفع در ایجاد تراست اثر ندارد. تعهد به نفع ثالث نیز شباهتهای فراوانی با تراست دارد. در هر دو رابطه مثلث گونه موجود است و صرفاً افرادی که انتفاع آنها مورد توجه بوده منتفع می شوند. در هیچ یک اراده اشخاص ذینفع در ایجاد نهاد اثری ندارد و در هر دو، اشخاص ذینفع مالک حق ایجاد شده هستند. هر دو قابلیت انحلال ارادی دارند و اشخاص ذینفع الزامی به پذیرش حق ندارند. هر دو رایگان و غیر معوض هستند. با این حال تفاوتهای بنیادین نیز دارند. برخلاف تراست، رکن مدیریتی در تعهد به نفع ثالث وجود ندارد. برخلاف تعهد به نفع ثالث، موضوع تراست الزاماً مال است و حقوق اشخاص ذینفع آن بسیار گسترده است که در تعهد به نفع ثالث اینگونه نیست. اصولاً موجد یا تراستی نمی توانند به تراست پایان دهند، در حالی که متعهد و مشترِط می توانند با فسخ یا اقاله قرارداد، تعهد به نفع ثالث را از بین ببرند. برخلاف تعهد به نفع ثالث، تراست مبتنی بر قرارداد نیست و با اراده موجد ایجاد می شود و قبض و انتقال مالکیت شرط صحت است. با بررسی ماهیت، شرایط صحت و آثار حقوقی و موارد انحلال نهادهای مزبور می توان دریافت علیرغم شباهتهای فراوان بین تراست و وقف و تعهد به نفع ثالث، نهادهای مزبورکاملاً مشابه تراست نیستند. در نظام حقوقی ایران نهادی که دارای کلیه ویژگیهای تراست باشد و بتواند مشابه کارکردهای این نهاد در نظام حقوقی کامن لا را در نظام حقوقی ایران ایفا نماید و به همان وسعت و گستردگی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد، وجود ندارد.

(برزگر، 1389. مطالعه تطبیقی تراست و نهادهای مشابه در نظام حقوقی ایران. دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی)

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Qualified Blind Trust - Sep 2015 - US Senate - Committee on Ethics
Qualified Blind Trust.pdf (10.8 مگابایت)

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Do Conflict of Interest Disclosures Facilitate Public Trust?

Abstract

Lab experiments disagree on the efficacy of disclosure as a remedy to conflicts of interest (COIs). Some experiments suggest that disclosure has perverse effects, although others suggest these are mitigated by real-world factors (eg, feedback, sanctions, norms). This article argues that experiments reporting positive effects of disclosure often lack external validity: disclosure works best in lab experiments that make it unrealistically clear that the one disclosing is intentionally lying. We argue that even disclosed COIs remain dangerous in settings such as medicine where bias is often unintentional rather than the result of intentional corruption, and we conclude that disclosure might not be the panacea many seem to take it to be.

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دلیل اصلی رخداد فساد در موقعیت تعارض منافع ، سنگین تر بودن وزنه منافع نابجا و شخصی به منافع عمومی و بجا است . ما برای افزایش بهره وری و کاهش ریسک فساد فقط منافع شخصی را در دو طرف ترازوی تعارض منافع تصور می کنیم .
منافع شخصی نهفته در منافع عام ، سلامت و پایداری سازمان و حقوق ثابت یا پایداری اقتصادی کشور به میزانی که مقام شخص در آن موثر است می باشد که منافع کاملا احتمالی و بسیار زمان بر هستند که برای اشخاص صرفه فساد را بیشتر میکنند .
زیر مجموعه موضوع مسئولیت که بالاتر در منابع علمی اشاره شد ، می توان از همسو سازی منافع شخصی اشخاص با سازمان یا شرکتی که در آن کار می کنند استفاده کرد ؛ به این منظور که با پیشنهاد یا اجبار خریداری سهام مجموعه مورد نظر ، با درصدی خاص و چشمگیر از تمام سرمایه شخصی فرد متقاضی استخدام تا پایان دوره قرارداد کاری ، می توان منافع شخصی فرد را با منافع عمومی سازمان بیش از پیش گره زد و کفه منافع شخصی عدم فساد را برای فرد طمع کار سنگین تر کرد .
این موضوع به آن اشاره دارد که در صورت عملکرد صحیح و مدیریت صحیح اعضای سازمان سهام سازمان رشد داشته و سود افراد در دوره مشخص یا کل دوره کاری را افزایش می دهد ، و در آن سوی ماجرا ریزش ارزش سهام که معمولا مستقیما وابسته به کارکرد اعضاست در سرمایه و زندگی شخصی آنها تاثیر گذاشته و از موجبات جلوگیری از فساد و مدیریت آن است .
این موضوع منافع دیگری از جمله تامین سرمایه موقت برای شرکت و فراهم سازی فرصت سرمایه گذاری و خرید دستگاه ها و عقد قرارداد های جدید و فراهم سازی موجبات افزایش بهره علمی عوام و درک تصمیمات اقتصادی کشور به دلیل اجبار به شناخت اقتصاد در مسیر آشنایی با بازار سرمایه و پیشرفت جامعه را فراهم می کند و از مصادیق عمیق و مهم مدیریت تعارض منافع است .

همسو سازی منافع کارمندان و مدیران با منافع سازمانی